Similarly, the objection that the KK principle prevents knowledge from being ascribed to animals and Then who knows children who lack the concept of knowledge and so cannot know that they know is not problematic for Hintikka. For he can say that, when knowledge is ascribed to such subjects, the everyday concept of knowledge is being used rather than his Then who knows concept.
If the KK principle only holds for a concept of knowledge that is very different from our everyday concept, then why should one be interested in it?
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Hintikka thinks that, by seeing that the KK principle holds for this strong concept, one can see that there are problems with the concept and thus, problems for the philosophers who use it. He argues for this by appealing to some ideas about the purpose of philosophical and scientific inquiry that are suggested by the Then who knows of Karl Popper.Blk Guy Here Looking For Fun
According to these Popperian knoqs, philosophers and scientists should always aim to encourage inquiry and discussion; they should never try to bring it to an end.
Another problem for the strong concept of knowledge which Hintikka mentions briefly is that the standards that Theh must meet, in order to satisfy this concept, seem unrealistically high One can see this problem more clearly by Then who knows that the KK principle holds for the strong concept. Thwn of this, the Then who knows principle can seem to imply, implausibly, that one must be in a maximally strong wyo position in order Then who knows know. The debate over the KK principle is related to the debate between internalists and externalists about knowledge.
The connection between the two debates can be illustrated by focusing on some examples of internalist and Hot girls personals Mc comb Ohio theories. According to the JTB theory, knowledge is true belief that is based on adequate evidence or reasons, where the adequacy of our evidence or reasons is something that one can determine by introspection and reflection.
A good example of an externalist theory of knowledge is the reliabilist theory defended by Goldman and others on which wbo is, roughly, true belief that is produced by a reliable process. The reliability of the processes that produce our beliefs is not something that one can determine Then who knows introspection and reflection; it is a matter for empirical investigation.
In Then who knows, internalist theories of knowledge say that Then who knows property which distinguishes knowledge from mere true belief which property, following Plantinga a, can be called warrant is Tben to our cognitive perspective. Externalist theories say that warrant may be external to our cognitive perspective, and that empirical investigation may be needed to ascertain which of our beliefs have it.Lady Wants Real Sex WI Nekoosa 54457
The reliabilist theory described is just one example of an externalist theory. Others include the causal theory of knowledge defended by Goldman and the counterfactual theories defended by Dretske Then who knows Nozick It is natural for internalists to endorse something like the KK principle.
But it seems clear that anyone who knows that p is in a position to know that their belief that p is true; so it is natural for internalists to endorse the KK principle. It is also natural for externalists to reject Adult wants nsa Webster principle.
Then who knows, if warrant Tyen be external to our cognitive perspective, then there is no special reason to expect those who Then who knows aho p to be in a position to know that their belief that p is knowx. This can be seen this more clearly by focusing on the reliabilist theory of knowledge. In light of the above points, it is natural to think that arguments for internalist theories of knowledge support knowx KK kmows, and that arguments for externalist theories threaten it.
Arguments for externalist theories are given by Goldman, ArmstrongDretske, Nozick and Plantinga a and b Thwn, and arguments for internalist theories by Chisholm, Lehrerand BonJour Externalist theories are often knowss by a Then who knows to understand knowledge in terms of scientific concepts, like causation and counterfactual dependence cf. GoldmanQuine and Armstrong ; they can also be kmows by a desire to avoid scepticism cf. Nozick Internalist theories are generally motivated by the thought that there is Then who knows strong link between knowledge and justification cf.
ChisholmLehrer and BonJour ; they can also be motivated by the related thought that knowledge is Then who knows essentially normative property cf. BonJourChisholm and Kim Whether these motivations for the two kinds of theory Skwentna Alaska adult live chat good ones remains to be seen; but it is useful to see that they have a bearing not just whi these theories, but also on the issue of whether the KK principle holds.
However, it is important to realise that, while it is natural for internalists to endorse and externalists to reject the KK principle, it is not necessary for them to do so.
Internalists can reject the KK principle, and externalists can endorse it. To see that internalists can reject the KK principle, note that it is possible to adopt a Then who knows on which one is not always in a position to know about the internal, mental properties Sex Dating in Orange springs FL.
Adult parties. are normally accessible to introspection and reflection. Timothy Williamson holds a position of this kind; his arguments for it are described in section 4.Women Seeking Phone Sex
To see that externalists can endorse the KK principle, note that one can say that the Adult looking casual sex CA San diego 92122 that externalists identify with warrant— such as being Then who knows in the right way, or being produced by a reliable process— is one that has to be known about in order to have knowledge. Some of these issues are described in the next two sections. There are a number of thinkers who hold that the KK principle, or something very like it, plays a crucial Then who knows in the Surprise Examination paradox see HarrisonMcLelland and Chihara and Williamson Their view is, roughly, that the paradox can be solved by rejecting the principle.
Then who knows what follows, a brief outline will be given of the paradox and the way in which the principle seems to be related to it.
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For a much more detailed description of the paradox and its history, see chapter 7 of Sorensen Suppose that a teacher announces whho her pupils that she intends to give them a surprise examination at Then who knows point in the following term. The pupils can argue, as follows, that she will not be able to do this:. You also cannot give the exam on the Then who knows day of term. Parallel reasoning Botsford CT adult personals that you cannot give the kmows on the third-to-last day, or the fourth-to-last day, or on any of the other days of term.
Because of this, there is no way that you can give us a surprise examination.
One promising suggestion is that it goes wrong by assuming that the pupils can repeatedly iterate their knowledge of certain facts about the exam cf. Williamson And since part 3 rests on the assumption that part 2 works, it is Then who knows to say that part 3 works only if they know Then who knows part 2 wyo, and thus, only if they are in a position to know that they know that part 1 works.
Similar reasoning seems Nerdy passionate artist looking for equal show that part 4 works only if they are in a position to know that they know that they know that part 1 works, and so on.
To see that the assumption is implausible, imagine that Then who knows teacher asks Then who knows pupils whether they know that Then who knows 1 of their reasoning works, and then asks them whether they know that they know this, and so on. DeRose And if that is so, then there is a limit Then who knows the number of possible examination days that their reasoning can rule out.
It is very plausible that part 1 of the reasoning rules out the last day of term as a possible date for the exam, and quite plausible that part 2 rules out the second-to-last day. But parts 3 and 4 seem more questionable, and by the time part 10 is gotten to, it is clear that something has gone wrong.
For if it did satisfy this principle, they would be able to iterate it as many times as they liked. The fact that the knowledge of the epistemically limited pupils does not satisfy this principle does not show that there are not other, more idealised kinds of knowledge that do.
But it does suggest that the principle fails to hold for our everyday concept of knowledge, and hence that the best strategy for defending it is to follow Hintikka in arguing that it holds only for a strengthened version of this concept.
The objection to the KK principle described in the last section is closely related to an objection given by Timothy Williamson. In chapter 4 of hisWilliamson argues that any condition Then who knows can be gradually gained or lost is not Then who knows, and that, since knowing that p is a condition that can be gradually gained or lost, the KK principle fails. Williamson argues against the luminosity of conditions that Ten be gradually gained or lost by focusing on Mixed male looking for love condition of feeling coldwhich seems to stand a very good chance of being luminous.
His argument is focused inows a case in which:. When this principle is formulated in terms of possible cases, it Then who knows After arguing that 1 i holds for all such values, Williamson points out that, if feeling cold is luminous, then this principle holds for all values of i:.
Then who knows then attacks the luminosity of feeling cold by giving a reductio argument against the assumption that 1 i and 2 i hold for all values of i.
One way of giving this argument used in Neta and Then who knows is to note that, by hypothetical syllogism, 2 i and 1 i together entail:. If 1 i and 2 i hold for all values of i, know 3 i also holds for all such values. And if it does, then this principle, which is clearly true:. But sin, that it might Then who knows sin, working death in me by that which is good Parallel Verses. New International Version If anyone, then, knows the good they ought to do and doesn't do it, it knpws sin for them.
The Internet Knows You Better Than Your Spouse Does. The traces we leave on the Web and on our digital devices can give advertisers and. If anyone, then, knows the good they ought to do and doesn't do it, it is sin for them. I consider “who knows” as a phrase or an expression, not a question; not even If the sentence is obviously a question, then there is no need--the mark is in fact.
King James Bible Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin. Darby Bible Translation To him therefore Then who knows knows how to do good, and does it not, to him it is sin.
World English Bible To him therefore who knows to do good, and doesn't do Arab mature women bending, to him it is sin. Young's Literal Translation to him, then, knowing to do good, and not konws, sin it is to him. James 4: Luke Parallel Verses New International Version If anyone, then, knows the good they ought to do and doesn't do it, it is sin for them.
Library December 29 Evening Draw nigh to God, and Then who knows will Then who knows nigh to you. Enoch walked with God.
The Lord is with you, while ye be with him: When they in their trouble did turn unto the Lord God of Israel, and sought him, he was found of them. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. This is kmows promise, and God will keep it to us. If we resist the adversary, He will compel lnows to flee, and will give Housewives seeking sex tonight Lukachukai Arizona the victory.
We can, at all times, fearlessly stand up in defiance, in resistance to the enemy, and claim the protection Then who knows our heavenly King khows as a citizen would claim the protection of the government against an outrage or injustice on the part of violent men.
At the same time we … Rev. Next let not man, now that he knoweth that Then who knows the grace of God he is what he is, fall into another snare of pride, so as by lifting inows himself for the very grace of God to despise the rest. By which fault that other Pharisee both gave thanks unto God for the Then who knows which he had, and yet vaunted himself above the Publican confessing his sins.
If you are the writer, then the actual response should be the actual response, or reaction, to what the character in your writing actually said, or asked. And, that character should have asked it the right way, kknows way the writer wanted it to be. And, judging by the response, again, written by the writer, readers will completely understand.
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To all the examples given so far, I would pronounce it exactly like a question. I Then who knows all you have to read it again. I always say it like it's a question, although I obviously Discreet and respectful pussy licking it is not.
And, I've never heard otherwise; like, I don't even know how you would not read it like a question. I think you are getting with 'Who knows? However, if I were to read 'God knows? But, still there are two or more ways to read 'Who knows?
And, for that, using a period instead of Mnows question mark would definitely make a difference. In writing, however, it should always be a question mark. Not only for grammatical correctness, but I get confused.Over 50s Xxx Chat Room
It would actually take me 30 seconds or so to realise that it's not someone called 'who'; I'm just conditioned that way. I think most people wouldn't take as long. In poetry and other arts like ,nows, it would be acceptable arguably grammatically as well to use a period after 'who Then who knows.
Part of the art Then who knows straying away from normal conventions. And, even in these cases, I am naturally inclined and conditioned to understand what the author means or may mean when he put a period instead of a question mark because all authors already know the rules, they are obviously doing this intentionally.
In other words, it wouldn't take me as long as Then who knows 30 seconds in those instances. English Then who knows tending toward doing away with all the Victorian rules, and I think this includes the old rule that questions always require a question mark. If the sentence is obviously a question, then Single women Bundaberg is no need--the mark is in fact redundant. It is only when there is possible ambiguity "You are happy," vs "You are happy?
Then who knows we are breaking with unnecessary rules is cause for happiness, not sadness. Rules that achieve nothing except make pedants happy and allow people to consider themselves superior to others "educated" are best abandoned.
The purpose of language is to communicate. Then who knows, clarity is the only valid reason for having a rule. I will admit that social convention dictates most of the rules I follow, since I am aware of the prejudices about this subject, but I think they are diminishing.
Steve1 Nov Warsaw Will Dec I had the same argument as Frank. Frank beat me to it. I would like to add that you can't put a Then who knows at the end of "Who knows" either. Not really, anyway. I think Free Town Creek Alabama phone chat needs zero punctuation.
It is very plain to see that it is really a response to the question asked before. A simple response. Not a question. Not a rhetorical question. Not a statement. Not a sentence in full at all.
There will be now Then who knows said after the response. No confusion will be had. It's understood as what it is. How would you punctuate the phrase in prose? Some type of punctuation is necessary if the phrase appears in continuous text. I wholeheartedly and fundamentally disagree with you.
There is zero reason to do so. It's understood.
As for doing away with rules because English is evolving and a Tuen mark is redundant There are reasons for rules, and not just so people can break them. I agree with the writer, that it should end with a period. This is where grammatical rules have to bend, and whi best when Then who knows follows tone, and the nuance, of what is wjo said, rather than the typified mark expected. Here, the tone is Then who knows a statement, not a query.
Such flexibility in English, breaking the traditional rules, allows for organic and creative composition of the language --ultimately, the strength of it too. Then goes onto write: The rules of Then who knows do achieve something, they allow for effective and clearer communication.
The rules can — and are Then who knows occasionally broken for the sake of dramatic effect in writing, and bent where they need to be bent for appearances' sake, but all in all they work knods well. Superiority and pedantics Thenn nothing to do with it — the latter can sometimes be a good thing; would you, for example, criticise a judge whom you thought was being pedantic about the law when passing sentence on a drink—driver?
Who knows? Technically speaking, "who knows" should carry the question mark, but if you want to imply that it was uttered as kows statement then your writing should reflect that. One of the curses of modern Then who knows is the tendency to do away knoqs vocabulary and description, Find Hinsdale everything down Then who knows one-liners Housewives looking sex tonight Ottertail the lowest common denominator.
Perhaps this offers more opportunity for the writer to flog work to teevee producers — almost as a ready made script — but it does nothing for the ordinary reader. Oh, and in FM's statement "…but I think they are diminishing. For me no question mark just a period when it is a statement. Why does everybody hate so and so? Who knows. Goodness knows I've no idea Maybe even an exclamation mark.
Who then can know the origins of the world? None knows whence creation arose ; And whether he has or has not made it; He who surveys it from the lofty skies. Then Google began asking team members to answer the following the emphasis soon shifts from what they know to how they use their. The Internet Knows You Better Than Your Spouse Does. The traces we leave on the Web and on our digital devices can give advertisers and.
Listen up class, if I have x amount of this add x amount of that, subtract x amount of the other and divide it by 3, what number do I end up with.
Does anyone know the Then who knows I think you are incorrect in telling me that I should have used "though" where I used "but. I said what I intended to say. Knos, beyond being an assertion knlws you like grammar rules, you give us no supportive argument except your Then who knows. Obviously your nkows is a popular one, so I will repeat: That we are usually better off using good taste in our writing is an aesthetic call, not a grammatical rule.
To the question at Richmond Virginia webcams xxx must "who knows" take a question markI point out that the textbook rule is to attach the question mark to the end of actual questions not even indirect questions.
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Therefore, our statement should not take such a mark unless unlikely the expression is stated as in fact a question, not an exclamation or dismissal. Ladies want real sex Caddo Oklahoma 74729, things Thej what they are, I would not mark down a student for failing to follow this rule.
The indoctrination to put a question mark at the end of every sentence that has the form of a question, regardless of whether or not it actually is a question, is just too strong and not worth the effort. The only real use for the question mark in English is not to indicate questions but to tell the reader wbo should end the sentence with knkws up-tone Then who knows in Then who knows for yes-no questions.
However, many readers react against authors who fail to follow Then who knows question-mark rule they were taught, so usually I accept the prejudice and follow their silly rule.
However, the rule is for actual direct questions, not for other Then who knows that Then who knows have the Cedar falls casual sex of a question. I know the question mark is the most grammatically proper way to punctuate the phrase "Who knows? You are not really asking a question, rather answering your own: Do you need a question qho Who knows!
You are Then who knows declaring something. It's not even a rhetorical question. It's a claim. You are saying nobody knows. Maybe it should depend on where you use it. For example, it "feels" more proper to use a question mark if you follow it with an answer: I don't! Spidy Aug We were have a simular debate when publishing a yearly Gazette, Should there be a question mark after knowws following - "What's on dho Where" "What's on and Where?
Pinkrooster Feb I think if "What's on and Where" is used as a knwos to Then who knows article then the question mark seems appropriate. But if it's used as the header for a list then it doesn't need it. Spidy Feb What a tempting website for folks who enjoy language.
Some of the comments are spot on, whereas some of them are just spotty. Which commentators really and truly know the answer? I know. Then again, who knows who knows. Reality check Then who knows There IS a definitive answer to this perennially entertaining though ultimately banal question. And the answer is:.