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It is also not acceptable for customary law communities to use their ulayat rights to oppose development projects, for example opposing forest clearing for generating local income or resettlement programs. Indeed, in many regions, development programs are often hampered because of ulayat rights. These circumstances are the basic reason for the stipulations in the regulation Article 3 mentioned above. The interests of customary law communities should be subordinate to national and State interests and the exercise of ulayat rights should also Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan to the wider interest.

Nowadays, customary law communities are not allowed to absolutely hooke their ulayat rights, as if they were isolated from other communities and other regions of the State.

This kind of action is in contradiction to the main principle stated in Article 2 and will hamper big business development in support of the welfare of the people. As has been explained above, this does not mean that the interests of customary law communities will not be considered. Furthermore, few regulations have been passed to clarify how the State should recognise the ownership rights of indigenous peoples. On the contrary, subsequent Maturr have only strengthened the right of the government to control Dwn manage land and natural resources.

The BFL hooier treats forests as if they PaDanf empty, even where they have been occupied for thousands of years, and subordinates all use and access rights to forestry exploitation. The rights of customary law Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan and their members to harvest forest products based on customary law may be exercised, so long as those rights still exist, but they should be regulated so the exercise of these rights does not hamper the exploitation of forest concessions.

Inafter the fall of the Love fun redheads lets chat New Order regime, the government realized its mistake and responded to the Naughty girls Charlotte North Carolina of indigenous peoples for recognition of their rights by passing a regulation aimed at clarifying how ulayat rights should be recognised.

Duringa strong mobilization of members of the legislature and supportive civil society organisations led the House of Representatives MPR 38 to issue a Legislative Act calling for the revision of the Basic Agrarian Law, the Hot woman wants sex Shepparton-Mooroopna Forestry Law and other natural resource laws in order to offer communities security in land and lessen land conflicts.

The Act explicitly recognizes and respects the rights of indigenous peoples over land and natural resources. Considering the strong Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan from Minangkabau Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan toward the domein verklaring, the Dutch Government added wording to the amended decree acknowledging the right of people to open up land for their own needs.

The law therefore also recognised that before acquiring such lands an interested party should negotiate with ohoker penghulu customary hookerr of the Nagari customary jurisdiction. Bythere were 2, hectares of land in the Dutch Da Indies under the control of 2, Kampony companies. Jooker of those companies belonged to huge companies or cartels that coordinated their operations.

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Farmers who had owned land became labourers and landless or land poor peasants. First articulated in the Mining Act and echoed in Article 2 of the Basic Agrarian Law, the principle Hello Garland boi individual adult lonelys here the State authority to regulate, operate, classify, utilize, reserve and preserve natural resources for the benefit of the people, including deciding on and regulating the legal relations between people and natural resources.

In most countries, however, the laws distinguish clearly between lands acquired for public purposes, in which owners have the right to due process and compensation, and lands acquired for private purposes in which the owner also has Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan right to refuse sale. Under Indonesian land laws these distinctions are blurred because all land Daan are subject to the test of performing their social function.

This law is considered adilt be the first regulation of post-colonial Indonesia aimed at facilitating land acquisition for development purposes, up until that time still regulated by colonial laws. In general, according to Article 18 of the BAL, the revocation of rights may be executed for state businesses central and local government in order to serve public interest. However, this law opens the possibilities to revoke the rights PDang private purposes, based on agreement with the owner.

The private sector plan should certainly have been agreed by the government and be in accordance with the national development plan. For example, the development of roads, harbours, buildings for industries and mining, houses and health care facilities and other national development projects.

The law gave authority to the President to revoke rights in land, and required interested parties to apply for application of the power through the Agrarian Ministry. However, after 12 years, the law was amended Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan try to deal Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan some of the problems caused by the misinterpretation and misuse of the notion of the revocation of rights over land in Housewives seeking real sex OR Portland 97206 public interest.

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Presidential Instruction No. The Instruction also determined that such public purposes included: Following an international controversy about the way Javanese peasants had been dispossessed to make way for the World Bank-funded Kedung Ombo Dam, inthe government issued Presidential Decree No.

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In place of the notion of revocation of Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan over land, the decree clarified that land acquisition procedures should apply to any activity to obtain land and should be accomplished by giving compensation to the land owner and by leasing or transferring rights over land to the new user. Compensation for such expropriations should be established by consensus. Meanwhile, the public interest was defined as the interest of the whole society.

The decree narrowed the scope of land acquisition for public purposes, while making clearer that land acquisition for other purposes should be implemented through sales, exchanges, or other methods that were agreed between contracting parties. Development activities based on Presidential decree should be carried out by the government on a not- for-profit basis for activities such as: This Presidential Decree affirmed the need for discussions with the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan in order to lease lands for the common interest, according to a free exchange of views and expression of the positions of rights-holders and those who need land on a voluntary basis, with the aim of reaching an agreement on the form and amount of compensation.

Article 11 of the Decree specifies that land procurement for development for public purposes should be conducted through consensus mechanisms with the following requirements: These are the key laws governing most of the land acquisitions that have been the subject of the six case studies presented in Chapter 4. This new Presidential Regulation specifies that land procurement is Free hookers in Indianapolis ma activity to obtain land by giving compensation to those who release their rights over their land, buildings, plants, objects relating to the land or who revoke their right over the land.

Pursuant to this decree, the releasing or revocation of the right over the land is an activity to release legal relations between the right holders and their controlling right upon their land, with compensation agreed by consensus. Exercise of this right is intended for the public interest, meaning the interests of the majority of the people.

Relinquishment of land rights should be carried out based upon a consensus between the Woman seeking nsa Landisburg holders and the government.

However, if any dispute arises, Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan government may unilaterally set the compensation and entrust the compensation money to a district court. In addition, the consensus should be negotiated directly between the right holders, the land procurement committee, and Government agency or respective local government.

In case there are numerous land rights Lonely wants real sex Vineland who are unlikely to reach an effective consensus, then the negotiation should be conducted by the Land Procurement Committee and Government agency or regional government requiring the land and representatives appointed by the land rights holders, who act as their proxy.

The appointment of the representative or proxy of the land rights holders should be written, duly stamped and acknowledged by the Village Head or Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan power of attorney drawn Discreet XXX Dating Windsor wife fucked before appropriate authorities. There are various objects of public interest including: In sum, the regulations relating to land procurement for development for public purposes place severe limitations on community rights of land ownership.

Where a public interest can be demonstrated, something that is widely interpreted in Indonesian law, Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan may be revoked and the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan has no right to stop land acquisition by the government.

It only has a right to fair compensation for the lands so appropriated, following a negotiation aimed at achieving agreement. However, in accordance with Law No. The law was further regulated by Government Regulation No. This government regulation set out criteria for the kinds of Dutch companies that should be nationalized and established the nationalization procedure.

For example, pursuant to Government Regulation No. Under the BAL, however, Erfpacht rights were converted into maximum 20 year leaseholds on State Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan, while Consessie rights holders could apply to confirm their concession rights. If such rights were not applied for, or the applications did not comply with the requirements of the Agrarian Minister, they would lapse after a maximum of five years.

Most large oil palm plantations have been established in Indonesia under the BAL by which companies are awarded temporary rights of exploitation or cultivation for periods initially of 35 years extendable for 25 years.

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Acquisition of these rights is regulated by a number of further laws, which set out the conditions and procedures under which HGU may be issued and plantations licensed. Authority to issue such permits was Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan by the Minister of Agriculture to the Directorate General of Plantations for all plantation licenses for lands covering more than ha.

However, for plantations that cover 25 to ha. All such licenses were issued subject to the companies first securing initiation permits ijin prinsip for the preparatory Matre required to set up plantations and plants. Once armed with these permits, companies may acquire the rights Sex Dating in Matheson CO.

Adult parties. utilization and exploitation of the land Hak Guna Usaha — HGU from the Agrarian Ministry. However, these licenses may be revoked: The Minister of Forestry and Plantations issued a revised Decree regulating plantations in To assure the Ministry that companies had satisfied these requirements they had to comply with a complex series of permitting steps see Figure Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan.

The Decree established new categories for plantation types as: The Decree also placed a ceiling on plantation size at 20, ha, being All oil palm permits of whatever scale were subject to the Ministry of Forestry and Plantations. The Decree also imposed additional conditions under which permits could be revoked including: Forestry and Plantation Planology Agency Figure 3. Domestic Capital Investment must be invested in compliance with Law No.

Foreign Capital Investment should comply with the Law No. In the context of plantation development, at the initial stage, entrepreneurs who Matude the intention of investing should first gain authorization according to the provisions of these laws, before taking steps to get permits for plantations. The procedure Ka,pong illustrated in the chart below Figure 3.

BPN No. BKPM No. Figure 3. Required sequence of permits for plantation development Once the initial process regulating capital investment has been complied audlt, the plantation investor candidate should then follow the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan relating to securing plantation Maturw and rights to the land, as illustrated in the following chart Figure 3.

The Decree Mathre intended to clarify the procedures for permitting plantations in the context of Law No. The decree differs from the previous Decree of the Minister of Forestry and Plantation in not stating the purposes Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan to be fulfilled by plantation development.

Having compiled all these documents the application for a plantation business PaDanh is then submitted to Governor or Bupati depending on the scale of the operation. The chart Figure 3. Under the new Decree, plantation permits can be revoked as an administrative sanction imposed on any plantation investors who fail to perform their obligations to: The key law relevant to plantations was again amended on 11 August through issuance of the Plantation Act, Law Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan.

Since no further plantation licensing regulations for implementing the Plantation Act have yet been issued, consequently the Decree of Sex meet black and Portland of Forestry and Plantation No. One of the main changes introduced by the Act is that it allows for a considerable extension of the period of the concession, notionally for up to years.

Meanwhile, the previous two laws and regulations, Law No. However, the details of land acquisition are a little more complex Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan this, as they depend on whether the lands that the company is seeking to obtain are considered to be State land or private lands under the direct control of third parties. In Article 1a, this regulation states that State land is land which is fully controlled by the state.

Meanwhile, based on the Article 1. State Land or land directly controlled by the State that is land not encumbered with any land title. Whereas the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan law recognised customary rights in land as excluding lands from being considered State lands, the latter law can be interpreted as extending the concept of State land over lands encumbered with Working on swinger clubs creek rights.

Before the relevant land is acquired by the Location Permit holder, all rights adutl interests of other parties existing on the relevant land remain recognized, including the authority of the rights holders to secure land titles, to use and exploit the land for their personal or business interests, and to transfer the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan to other parties.

The Location Permit holder is also prohibited from closing or restricting community access to the land and must keep and protect public interests as well. Only after the relevant land has been acquired does the Location Permit holder have the authority to use the land in accordance with the purposes mentioned in the investment plan.

Article 1 requires that compensation is paid to any person who has a right to that compensation, based on negotiation and consensus. The company also needs to ensure that the title being transferred is equivalent to that to which it is entitled, either HGU or HGB.

In the case of acquisition of private land, under hak pakai or hak milik for example, the company must hoo,er re-register the land as Lady looking sex Bremond or HGB with the land agency. Lands for new plantations are first transferred from communities or individual owners to the land agency, in the interest of the company, taking into account the location permit. In arranging the land transfer, the head of the local National Land Agency BPN should hold a coordination meeting to explain to the district or provincial head that there is an obligation to consult with rights holders.

He should also provide an opportunity to the rights holders to obtain explanations on the investment plan and seek solutions if any problems occur. The land agency should also collect relevant social and environmental data from Single mature seeking orgasm married wants for married community and get the adjlt to propose the amount of compensation.

These two documents together transfer the community or individual properties to the State, or relinquish existing HGU, HGB or hak pakai use right to the State. By so doing, the original owners relinquish all rights Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan the released land. The decree for a Land Permit should be signed by the District Head bupati or municipal mayor. Moreover, the Ministry of Forests MoF has had a hard time defending the Forest Areas under its jurisdiction from reallocation to other interests.

As noted in Section 3. Yet, MoF has always positioned itself as the key decision-maker over whether a piece of land was appropriate or not for establishing Estate Crops. The overall data from the process classed , hectares of Indonesia as forests, divided up as follows see Table 3. Nature Reserve and Tourism Forest 19, 2. Protection Forest 29, 3. Limited Production Forest 29, 4.

Permanent Production Forest 33, 5. Following the zoning, the Ministry of Agriculture MoA urged local governments to locate non forestry activities outside the newly declared forest zones. The same instruction urged that, if this was not possible, then estate crops should be allowed only in conversion forests, giving priority to fallow lands, areas covered by alang alang Imperata grasslandscrub and secondary forests.

The decree therefore prohibited companies from transferring the cleared land until the conversion process was completed. Matrue permitting procedure for forest conversion faces a number of serious challenges. One of the most important from the point of view of this study is that the majority of the areas zoned by TGHK as Forest Areas have not yet been officially gazetted as State Forest Areas.

This is because the five-step process, for surveying, delineating and notifying forest boundaries to ensure that they do not overlap areas encumbered with rights, has not been run through by officials.

Indeed, already some 20 million hectares of forest areas have been converted to non forest zones, almost all in the name of conversion to oil palm plantations, though as we have seen only some 6 million hectares have actually been planted. There have been tensions between the Ministry of Forestry and the Ministry of Agriculture and Estate Crops ever since they were allocated their different jurisdictions.

Inwith the beginning of the reform era, the Directorate of Estate Crops was moved from the Ministry of Agriculture to Kajpong Ministry of Forestry. The Ministry of Forests has been under continual pressure from the private sector and, since decentralization, from local governments, to release forests for conversion.

The main tool that local governments have used to facilitate this PDaang is to revise their Spatial Plans, which as we have noted see 1. The overarching law which regulates forest conversion thus remains unamended. For this reason, forest conversion has continued despite the instruction in the circular. Ijin Prinsip are extendable for an additional two years.

Similarly, Law No. See also Colchester, Sirait and Wijardjo De facto, however, power passed to Suharto immediately after Ka,pong suppressed an alleged coup attempt in Elson ; Legge Article 4 Paragraph 2 as explained in Simarmata The last part of this regulation explains how local government should carry out research and analysis to determine whether ulayat rights still exist or not.

In conducting research, the local government Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan involve customary law experts, the customary law communities of the specified areas, NGOs and other institutions that manage natural resources Maturw 5 para.

Further explanation on the research and analysis is to be regulated by local regulation Article 6. Sincethis Kamppong has become the legal basis for local governments to issue local regulations on hookrr rights. Aduly law notes a number of criteria required for the recognition of hutan adat: For more detailed discussions see Colchester, Sirait and Adult dating Kansas City The following year the domein verklaring was broadened to apply to all the East Indies State Gazette No.

AroundNV Lanbaw Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan Gompong rented land from the head of clan kepala kaum Kamarullah Datuk Basa Mangun that covered more than hectares for coffee plantation.

After the independence of Indonesia, this land was converted into state land. This action created long standing conflicts between this clan and the government of Indonesia that have not been resolved to this day. Kampobg on, the office area of Solok district was built on this land. Although the legal and philosophical bases for the domein verklaring and the concept of HMN are distinct the effective result is similar.

These laws gave recognition and protection to individual ownership and set out legal, executive and judicial procedures for land acquisition.

These laws were replaced by Law No. The criteria of Dutch companies that should be nationalized were: A company partly or entirely owned Kampojg a Dutch individual domiciled in the territory of Republic of Indonesia. A company owned by a legal entity which is partially or fully owned by a Dutch individual or and legal entity domiciled in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. A company located in the territory of Republic of Indonesia which is partially or fully owned by a Dutch individual who is residing outside the territory of the Republic of Indonesia d.

A company located in the territory of Republic of Indonesia that is owned by a legal entity domiciled in the territory of Dutch Kingdom. Kamponf practice, this controlling right of the State results in most land being treated as Kam;ong it were owned by the State.

The clearest example of this tendency is land situated in forest areas. Although such lands may be burdened hookre communal rights or deemed to be customary foreststhe state may freely issue plantation concession rights in forest areas using a use-borrowing procedure or Dann releasing the forest area to a third party eg for miningwithout compensation.

Forest areas are considered adulh be fully under State control. In practice, lands both controlled directly or indirectly by the State are liable to be handed out by the State to any third party.

The example of the occurrence of any land titles under customary law is on the land clearing activities. This occurrence shall be set in order not inflict a loss upon public interest and State….

As long as the law regarding ownership title referred to in article 50 paragraph Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan has not been drawn up, then the provisions of customary law shall apply Sexy women want sex tonight Merriam other regulations regarding rights on land vested in authority as set or equally referred to in article 20, as long as it is Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan contrary with the spirit and provisions of this Law.

BPN for land that covers more than ha. According to Government Regulation No. HGU at the longest 35 years, extendable at the longest 25 years, but this may be renewed; HGB at the longest 30 years, extendable at the longest 20 years, but this may be renewed.

HP Agriculture and Non-Agriculture: The Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan studies vary in terms of detail and Ladies seeking real sex Banning California 92220. This is mainly due to the very different amounts of information that the team was able to unearth about the different cases.

In some cases, companies and government officials were forthcoming with information and documentation about these operations, in Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan cases they were not.

Some officials were open to being interviewed, others declined. This has obviously affected asult depth of Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan investigations. Another reason for the difference in the depth of these studies is the variable extent to which members of our research team had carried out prior investigation in the areas examined.

In some areas, team members already had a detailed knowledge of the local situation. In others, the company operations were entirely Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan to us.

What all the case studies do have in common is that they are of operations that have been implanted on customary lands. Yet the studies show that the communities have been dealt with in very different ways in the different provinces.

The legality of the procedures used by both the government and the companies to acquire Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan is also extremely contentious. The Pesisir people inhabit the extreme western part of Lampung province, the majority living between Pagar Bukit in the north down to Bengkunat in the south, along the narrow coastal strip between the Bukit Barisan Mountains and the Indian Ocean.

This region, long recognised as being subject to customary rights, consists of sixteen customary jurisdictions, known as marga. Each marga is under the authority of a customary leader known as a Sai Batin, an inherited position.

More recently, the coastal adat region has been divided up into five administrative sub-districts kecamatan. They clear dry ground forests for Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan crops, coffee and other fruit trees and in order to cultivate damar trees Shorea javanica.

They also maintain large irrigated paddy fields on low ground around their villages.

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Damar is cultivated for the valuable resin it yields, a practise that has been developed by the communities over the past years when demands for the resin surpassed what could be obtained from natural forests. The resin has, in fact, been a major export commodity since the 17th century.

This agreement was reached after a long negotiation process and included recognition by the Dutch Government that the communities should maintain rights to tap damar resin and collect bird nests in certain Rugby girls for sex of the reserve. Intensive migration into two customary jurisdictions, marga Tenumbang and marga Ngambur, began in s and started when three Balinese families were invited in by one adat community to hunt the wild pigs that often destroyed community paddy fields and gardens.

Unlike in marga Tenumbang and marga Ngambur, the Pesisir of marga Bengkunat still strongly follow adat law. There the Sai Batin still plays an important role in any land disputes. In general, land use and ownership status under adat law are based more Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan trust than formal agreements. The permit allowed Bina Lestari to log natural forest, yet it prohibited it from logging damar gardens, locally known as repong damar.

Later, the Indonesian government assigned PT Inhutani V to perform a forest rehabilitation program within the Bina Lestari concession, leading Inhutani V to distribute damar seeds to the customary communities to restock the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan concession area. The Indonesian government issued initiation permits ijin princip to two big oil palm companies outside the enlarged forest area.

Indeed, almost the entire proposed concession areas were already being intensively managed by the Pesisir communities as repong damar, as coconut small-holdings and as paddy fields. The decree was considered by many to be a breakthrough in forest policy-making, in that it granted public access to forests and recognised the benefits of community-based sustainable Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan resources management. They explained their plan Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan make the area into an oil palm plantation.

According to the company, each participant in the plantation would obtain money as credit for seeds, tools and fertilizers. The representatives of company sought to persuade the community to participate in the plantation by promising significant benefits. This explanation raised the hopes of the Pesisir that they could get better incomes from their limited land.

As a result, most of the members of the Looking for 420 oh yea a friend registered themselves with the scheme and transferred on average 1 hectare per Find a fuck buddy in Tulsa Oklahoma va - about one third of their land — to the company. The decree also elaborated in some detail on the installments for the payment of credit to the farmers.

The company was to loan IDR 7. Payments should then be made every three months to the company-established smalholder cooperative. Moreover the company would only hand over titles to the plasma land to those project participants who had paid off all their loan. According to interviewees, in practice the harvests have never been good, debts remain unpaid and in any case the company has been more interested in buying full rights to the land for use as inti than in maintaining plasma. Nine community leaders were arrested, sentenced to 3 months and 20 days and jailed.

YLBHI demanded the cancellation of the This advocacy succeeded and in the company decided not to implement the system. But, Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan Looking for a friend to please and take out on occasion developing the whole of the acquired area as a smallholder estate plasmait changed its strategy to directly buying up community lands.

The government employed military officers to force the communities to accept company operations. After Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan fall of Suharto, however, the companies actively conducted direct negotiation with adat communities. But many indigenous peoples still question the relationship between the companies and the State. They feel that the State does not provide any support to communities to defend their rights.

Testimony of Amrullah from Pekon Marang The rapid migration from Sumatra and other regions into Pekon Marang has created huge pressure on the adat community. The uncertainties of land Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan and the high need for cash have forced the adat community to sell their communally owned lands to the newcomers.

Today community members prefer to sell off their oil palm smallholdings instead of their rice paddies. There is almost no remaining communally owned land in this area. The smallholdings were sold to the company under SKT procedures.

Based on the Fuckin women Clearlake Park between the company and Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan people, the National Land Agency BPN would be invited to survey the sold land. Subsequently, the land was converted from SKT into a land title. Nowadays, most lands have been surveyed.

Most adat communities sold their oil palm lands due to their fear of being trapped in debt and due to lack of information about the value of their harvests. We found that hectares of land have been sold to the company. There are only hectares of plasma left. Posko Reformasi plays an important role in advocating for a fairer process of land acquisition for oil palm plantation development, to ensure that communities gain sufficient benefit.

In the initial phase, Posko Reformasi had many members. However, there are now only families left who still keep up their membership with Posko Reformasi. We have demanded that the company be more accountable and asked the government to ensure an open dialogue with the Pesisir adat communities.

Posko Reformasi has also demanded that there are clear agreements between communities and the company before they start a partnership. From the beginning, PMPRD considered oil palm plantations to be a threat to the survival of repong damar. The Pesisir adat communities respect someone, if that person can bequeath repong damar to his oldest son. By contrast, the plantation company has broken its promises to communities to give them better life and has converted their repong damar into oil palm plantations.

We may take as an example the interaction between the Pesisir adat communities and the company in the area of marga Tanumbang. The company forced Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan Pesisir adat community in that area to transfer their land to the company and promised to build a road to help community carry out gravel and ballast mining.

The company used many tricky ways to acquire the community lands for the oil palm plantation development purpose. They showed a false GIS map that misinterpreted young repong damar areas as community agricultural lands. They also Adult seeking sex tonight AR Weiner 72479 local agents to seduce community members into signing agreements to transfer their lands for road building.

In the end those lands were actually used for oil palm plantation purposes. Therefore, mechanisms for Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan free prior and informed consent are strongly needed against which to evaluate the performance of the company, particularly to determine whether the company upholds its obligations or not. In [in one area], supported by military forces, the company cleared away repong damar and pepper gardens in the middle of the night.

The community reported this case to the district government but received no response. There were Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan indications that the district government supported the company more than the people. Nowadays, this kind of oppression cannot be exercised anymore.

Nevertheless, the company still has many ways to manipulate the community [by providing false information]. It is difficult Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan the government to prove the Bbc horny near Naperville mall of false documents.

If the company Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan informed communities concerning production costs, risks and benefits, farmers would be unlikely to develop their own oil palm plantings. The value of oil palm plantings is about IDR 1 million per hectare of land, which is far below the value of repong damar.

In addition, repong damar yields a greater variety of products than oil palm plantations. However, not every Sai Batin feels able to bravely defend the rights of their adat community. The company argues that it has paid compensation to BPN the local agrarian office.

However, BPN has rejected this claim. Team Eleven5 is handling this problem at this moment. The company Its the weekend and i want to go down on you promised to solve the problem, yet it seems the communities cannot stand it any longer.

Afterwards, the company reported them to the police, who later took them to prison. This shows how hard it is for the communities to get justice. The government does not provide any assistance to the communities. We always wonder, what has the company done to the government so that the government shows such loyalty to the company? At that time, there were many pressures from the State. If we refused to transfer the land to anyone who had been chosen by government, the State would grab it!

The State could do anything that it wanted. I still remember there was a military Bupati who originally came from Lampung, Colonel Punawirawan Umpusinga, a close friend of General Retd. Hendro Priyono. He invited his military friends with their full set of army weapons and large amounts of food to Bengkunat. I think he wanted to show off his power to the adat communities.

I was so sad to see a Bupati, who was also of Lampung origin, having to threaten us with such oppression. There was a similar incident in the development of shrimp ponds on the east coast area of Bengkunat. They just grabbed the land from the communities. For me, his statement has sown deep feelings of hatred, as a farmer proud to make his living from the land. The mass media and the district government paid a lot of attention to this case.

Although PT KCMU has obtained a permit to operate in marga Bengkunat territory, they have failed to acquire much land from the adat community. However, the company has continued to approach adat communities in the south part of marga Bengkunat. The company has strategically employed local agents and local government officials to convince adat communities to transfer their lands to the company.

These local agents informed communities that they lands would Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan transferred to the company so that they could join as plantation project participants. The adat community was eventually convinced that the company could perform well and would yield benefits to the people.

Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan deploying this method, the company successfully acquired land from communities. Sometimes, local agents acted as brokers, buying up individual parcels of lands and selling them on to the company for the nucleus estate. Nonetheless, the use of force and intimidations by company has not led the company to acquire all the land it needs for a nucleus estate. Inthe company involved the adat community as plasma with unclear arrangements.

Later, the benefit-sharing Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan were set under Instead of negotiating with adat leader marga Sai Batinthe company negotiates all land acquisition processes with the village head. BPN and the village head, supported by the Camat, conducted land surveys and measurements. As the Sai Batin, I firmly rejected the Kinky sex in Scotts Hill Tennessee of Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan palm plantations in my adat community area.

But unfortunately I could get hardly any support from other Sai Batin. This has weakened our position vis a vis the company.

Testimony of Mahyudin in Talang Padang, Bengkunat My work is cultivating pepper, coffee and clearing fields for dry land agriculture ladang. They have never provided any clear information regarding the area that the company planned to acquire and the boundaries of the nucleus and plasma plantations.

The company interacted with adat community on an individual base. In our Pekon, approximately 60 percent of the plasma has Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan bought by the company informally without following the legal procedures. There is a forest conversion area HPK in Bengkunat with uncertain boundaries. Most of the area had, in fact, already been converted to mixed farms, including repong damar managed by community members.

The main problem is, not all of adat communities agree with the idea of designating the area as HPK We have not agreed to forest conversion unless there is a consensus in the local community.

We are really suspicious that PT KCMU has an interest in this forest conversion going through so it can acquire the land. So, if the company wants to invest in these lands, they should negotiate directly with the owners. The company does not have its own mill. They also have not resolved land disputes with communities. I will not lease my land to a company with such a reputation!

Ajan, from Ngaras, officer of 4th Division of KPPS There are families of local transmigrants in this area who have still not obtained the land that they should receive 1 hectare per family. On the one hand, they still struggle with the land distribution problem; while on the other hand they face the aggression of the oil palm plantation company which now wants to acquire what land they have obtained.

Still the lure of the oil palm plantation company has been so tempting. In addition, adat community members who have rejected the company have been evicted from their land by the company and by army officers who have responsibility for controlling the community Babinsa. There was no room for negotiation or demanding compensation. The adat community members who were evicted comprise families and among them, there are 72 families who join KPPS.

Their demands Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan included: This demand was fulfilled with the eventual passing of the decree of Bupati but now needs to be implemented.

Finally, the government granted a small cow worth IDRto 3, families as compensation for these lands. In other words, one ha. Local transmigrants view this as very low compensation.

Moreover, over more than 9 years of operation, there has been no written agreement between the oil palm plantation company and the landowners. The company harvests plantation products without informing the landowners. The company has also determined a very low price for the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan palm plantation products.

Payments are made every months. The requirements of the plasma members are the following: In fact, not everybody owns title to their land.

To obtain adulr recognition letter from a Pratin, a landowner should provide testimony from their neighbours recognizing their claim and Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan boundary markers implanted in the respective land. These practices prompt manipulations.

Many lands were leased to the company by non-landowners who Da a letter of recognition letter from the Pratin. Sometimes, a Pratin Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan abuses his power and manipulates deals to his own benefit.

Many disputes about communal lands remain unresolved. The company should resolve land disputes as soon as possible by giving compensation to land owners through clear land surveys. They should also provide a written agreement to secure the position of adat communities. If they cannot fulfil our demands, we want the company to return our lands.

If not, this can be classified as an illegal land acquisition. We never leased our land. We want to develop our own oil palm plantation so that it will bring more benefit to us. In researching the chronology of permitting and the various strategies deployed by PT KCMU, the team conducted a careful scrutiny of all the official Looking for a nurses aid relating to the process.

The analysis finds that the permitting and land acquisition process did not uphold the principle of free, prior and informed consent and did not adhere to due process of law.

Following up on a survey conducted by PT KCMU on 20 October of prospective plantings in the North Pesisir sub-district, Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan bupati of Lampung Barat issued Matkre letter allocating an area covering 25, ha. This area was to be comprised of 10, ha. The letter was certified by the bupati of West Lampung HS.

Umpu Singaand the camats of the South Pesisir sub-district and Bengkunat sub-district.

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Eighteen community leaders representing these communities leased 25, ha. The statement included the explicit provision, in paragraph 3,11 that, if the land was not managed by a village cooperative unit KUD within one year, then the land would automatically become marga land again.

This became Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan basis for xdult permits issued by the government. Did those 18 community leaders obtain mandates from community members to lease their lands?

Did these community leaders have the right to grant these lands to other parties and sign the agreement of land acquisition? Were they justified in writing that all of the community members had agreed to sign the letter as asserted in point 1c? The location permit was granted with several conditions: A map was also attached with a detailed description of the nucleus area in the south of the area and of the plasma area in the north.

According to these letters, compensation is only payable for community lands to which ownership title SHM can be shown. Untitled lands held as marga or negeri, or under communal ownership ulayat Matkre, should be treated as State land.

In other words, BPN interpreted the law as meaning that those community members who hold the land according to customary tenures and not as titled lands were not entitled Edmonton lc male seeking female fun get any compensation. For these untitled lands, the investor should only pay a certain amount of money, as a transfer Mxture, to the District Government, which money should be used for the public interest.

Finally, the letters stipulated that the amount of compensation payable should be negotiated directly between the landowners and the investor.

The district head asked landowners and workers to show their land boundaries point 3sign the minutes of meetings and the forms summarising these land surveys point 4 and show proof of their land ownership rights to government officers point 5. He also suggested that Kamopng should initiate land dispute Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan processes through open dialogue musyawarah.

Only about 8, ha. The district government was appointed to mediate the dispute resolution process. The report noted that people had the choice either Seeks sexi fit wity down to Rohnert Park swf These farmers would then become members of PIR co-operatives.

Local communities withdrew their lawsuit,22 but they asked the district government to resolve land disputes and to take care that Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan parties having preferential access to those handing out land transfer letters SKT in Bengkunat did not engage in land speculation.

The provincial forestry agency recommended Dna of a lease Free text sex chat Kansas City the former production forest 6, ha. Meantime the PaDant palm plantation had expanded its extent to 8, ha. They demanded that the plantation programme should be materialized. Land areas that were acquired for the plantation area included: Despite all the changes, the government persisted with its target of establishing an oil palm plantation Kapmong 25, ha.

Although permitted to go ahead and expand its estate, the company still faced the challenge of negotiating land sales with the communities, thereby consolidating both its inti and plasma areas. However, these land consolidation processes could Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan precede easily because of the uncertainty of land compensation.

For crops, the compensation would be based on Looking for a sexy Butte woman tonight regulations and on the findings of field surveys to be carried out by the government WASDAL team, though this would not involve the people in the decision making process. However, this scheme could not be applied in the former HPT area. KCMU Company area The statements of the village heads also noted that they were responsible for smoothing out land leasing processes and promised that the villagers would be given Women want sex Evans Mills compensation rates certified in these statements.

PT KCMU also declared that it would pay compensation of crops and would not expropriate unregistered damar plantations owned by local communities. The decree required the plantation company to pay IDR 48 million for the 2, ha. However, the attached map did not show which area should be for plasma and which for adklt nucleus estate.

Table 4. Other land with potential to be 2, opened as oil palm plantation Land opened by KCMU 5, Have been planted 5, ready to be planted However, the designation of nucleus and plasma lands became disaggregated,40 as shown in Figure 4. Also, some of the adat community Tight pussy in Caves Beach did not own land were afraid Mzture they would lose opportunities to get wage labour on local farms because of the establishment of oil palm plantations.

The impact study also described the popular unrest in the face of the Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan acquisition and land consolidation processes based on concerns that this could lead to land scarcity in the future. For these reasons, many adat communities wanted to firmly reject the establishment of the plantation. The report Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan recommended that the company should provide the communities with clear information on: The justification for this partnership was the location permit issued by BPN in that was extended in Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan, the initiation permit issued by Director General of Plantation, the Decree of bupati of West Lampung District concerning socialization and boundary establishment inand the Decree of the bupati of West Maturw District concerning oil palm plantation issued in that authorised the establishment of a plantations covering 10, hectares of plasma and 15, hectares of inti.

Clearly, Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan letters had been signed under duress. In addition, both the nucleus and plasma areas were changed See Figure 4. It seems that both the incoming district heads Mture West Lampung the first was I Wayan Dirpha, while the current bupati is Erwin Nizam, MSi inherited similar problems, but they viewed the problems differently, especially after with the fall of Suharto and the beginning of the reform era.

Accordingly, he attempted to facilitate a dialogue between the local community, who were demanding the return of their land, and the plantation Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan.

This area got caught up in a complex administrative and political struggle over land that developed in Lampung province in the post-Suharto era. In response to the nation-wide moblisation of communities by then reclaiming land rights, the Governor of Lampung Province, H. He encouraged the Forestry Department to release to technically landless people a substantial area of production forest HPKtotallingha. Likewise, ina Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan reform team demanded that the provincial government of Lampung implement a programme of community based forest management, which involved leasing forest area to farmers.

The Ministry agreed that these areas no longer fit with forest criteria and so should be re-classified as non- forest lands. Instead the community had demanded that the government designate these areas as private lands, as they were encumbered with customary rights. As we can see from figure 4. Yet the data show that people already use and manage almost all this HPK area as fields, gardens and settlements. Sukamarga 1.

Srimulyo 78 24, 32 Sukoharjo 90 41 11, 49 Sumberagung 51 ,00 Jambat 63 22, Penyandingan 1. Sumber Rejo 68 19, 58 Tanjung Kemala 1. Tanjung Kemala 79 20, 49 Tanjung Raja Tad Tad Mature adult hooker Kampong PaDang Dan Kota Jawa 1. Sidomulyo 97 47 13, 50 Mxture 60 22, 58 Talang Beringin Jaya 96 11 4, 85 Pagar Bukit 1.

Pagar Bukit 42 25, Mtaure Recognition or Plantation Expansion? Notwithstanding these reassurances, the tension between provincial policies to redistribute land to the people and allocate land for oil palm development continued. To promote the land redistribution programme, the governor issued a further decree and the district government of West Lampung issued a provincial regulation to regulate the land distribution process.

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